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Tri-mX wasps
TRI-MX – (Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae)

Target Pests
Advantages of using Tri-mX
Mode of Action
Dosage (Quantity per Ha)
How to order Tri-mX:

Adult Tri-mX egg parasitoid

Tri-mX is a minute, yellow parasitic wasp, that attacks false codling moth (FCM) eggs. They are indigenous to South Africa, and occur naturally in local orchards, especially in areas that are not regularly treated with organophosphates or insect growth regulators (IGR’s). They are indigenous to Africa, though they have also been found in macadamia orchards in Queensland, Australia (2004), where they are successfully used to treat macadamia nut borer (Cryptophlebia ombrodelta).

Adult false codling moth (FCM)

Leading citrus entomologists view it as a highly effective natural enemy of FCM, and infestations in navel oranges has been reduced by between 50 and 70%, in release trails.
Once Tri-mX wasps have established in an orchard, they will continue searching for freshly-laid FCM eggs, spreading to surrounding orchards and vegetation. Though they are capable of parasitizing some other common moth pest eggs too (listed below), they are fairly specialized, and cannot attack other insects, or pests e.g. the african bollworm (Heliothis armigera).

Target pests:

Tri-mX attacks the egg stage of:
  • false codling moth / FCM (Thaumatotibia leucotreta*)
  • litchi moth (Cryptophlebia peltastica)
  • macadamia nut borer (Thaumatotibia batrachopa)
* Previously Cryptophlebia leucotreta

Advantages of using Tri-mX
  • Tri-mX prevents fruit decay by eliminating FCM larvae before they hatch;
  • Tri-mX is well-suited to integrate with other control methods (e.g. mating disruption or granulovirus);
  • Tri-mx is the only control strategy of FCM, aimed at the egg stage;
  • Tri-mX wasps leave no chemical residues and are therefore completely safe to apply in both conventional and organic agricultural systems;
  • Tri-mX is easy to use and quick to distribute in affected areas;
  • The manual application of Tri-mX efficiently lowers farms’ carbon emissions (and their reliance on fossil fuels) as the use of tractors and spraying equipment is not required;
  • Tri-mX is environmentally friendly and cannot pollute the soil or water, as often is the case with conventional pesticides;
  • Pests cannot develop resistance against their natural enemies, thus Tri-mX is an excellent tool to combat resistance;
  • No repercussion problems can occur as Tri-mX are target specific and have no adverse effect on other beneficials;
  • Tri-mX is effective in areas that are difficult to reach with spray-equipment, for example very large / high macadamia / citrus trees, within the navel ends of certain citrus varieties or in the dense foliage of others.
False codling moth and Tri-mX life cycles
Mode of Action

Adult Tri-mX wasps lay their eggs inside the FCM egg. The (wasp) larvae that hatch, feed on the developing (moth) larvae inside the egg, and pupates after approximately 4 days. The parasitized moth eggs now change to black (see picture). After approximately 4 days, the adult Tri-mX wasp appears from the FCM egg. Tri-mX has a very short lifecycle (around 8 days from egg to adult in summer), ensuring rapid build-up in times of egg laying by its host.

Up to three Tri-mX wasps can hatch from a single FCM egg. Tri-mX wasps prefer to parasitize fresh FCM eggs and adults live between 5 and 10 days. Daily temperatures and access to food (e.g. nectar) have an influence on its longevity (higher temperatures = shorter lifecycle).

When and how to distribute Tri-mX:

FCM eggs parasitized by Tri-mX wasps
Parasitized eggs must be distributed in affected orchards as soon as the fruit become susceptible to moth damage (November / December) or when FCM is regularly caught in pheromone traps. Tri-mX are sent in the pupal stage as parasitized eggs on wax paper sheets. These egg sheets must be distributed shortly after receipt by stapling /clipping them to a leaf in the affected areas. Tri-mX parasitoids will usually start hatching within 2 days of receipt, and care must be taken to store and distribute the wasps appropriately.

More detailed instructions on how to distribute the wasps in an orchard, will be sent out with the first consignment.

Dosage (Quantity per Ha)

Three to four releases (3-4 weeks apart) of 20 000 – 25 000 each;
Thus 60 000 – 100 000 Tri-mX / Ha per season.

The exact dosage will depend on:
1. the type of crop or cultivar it is being used on;
2. The crop’s history and susceptibility to FCM attack;
3. FCM pressure (as denoted by male trap catches) and other control options being utilized


  • Citrus
  • Grapes
  • Macadamia
  • Litchi
  • Avocado
  • Plum

Packaging and transport:

Tri-mX are sent in the pupal stage on parasitized egg sheets – 1 000 parasitized eggs / egg sheet. The egg sheets are placed in an envelope, and sent in a polystyrene cooler box. Egg sheets should preferably be stored at a temperature of 10 - 12°C until release (not in a refrigerator).

How to order Tri-mX:

Please visit our Order Form Page to place an order or better yet, send us a mail at We’ll gladly put you in touch with a trained sales representative / pest control advisor (PCA). We encourage farmers to buy biocontrol products from registered PCA’s to ensure product quality and conformity, while gaining from the expert knowledge and experience that PCA’s can bring to the farm.
There is a single national guiding price for our products, ensuring equitable pricing across the agro-industry.

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